The government has announced a new points-based migration system that will “open the country to the brightest and the best people in the world”. With the new system that will come into force in 2021, it is aimed to attract the labour force trained in the fields of science and technology to the country.
The UK government has announced a new point-based migration system that will “open the country to the brightest and best people in the world” after Brexit. With the new system, which will be effective as of January 1, 2021 when free movement and the European Union (EU) ends, it is aimed to attract and grant work permits for the UK, such a labour force trained in science and technology. To achieve this, new immigration system will make a shift from ‘point based system’ to new ‘job offer system’ with minimum threshold salary, alongside PhD and good level of English are being standardised.
Minister of Home Office, Priti Patel, said in one of his statement that the new system will come into force on January 1, 2021. She articulated that it will be a historical decision for the whole country by adding: “We put an end to free movement, we take control of our borders. We will attract the brightest and best people from all over the world and reveal the full potential of this country”. Regarding the new system, she make an, emphasise how they have taken into account the demands of the British people. Patel called British companies to invest on their own native work forces with prioritising automation technologies, by reducing the share of “cheap labour” from Europe.
The new system will treat the EU and non-EU citizens equally and will target to attract people who can contribute to the UK economy the most. Irish citizens will be able to enter and live in England as the way they currently do. EU and citizens of non-EU countries will be subject to the same migration arrangements after 1 January 2021. The new immigration system was one of the most important election promises of the Boris Johnson government in the UK and, which left the EU on 31 January.
Priority for investor, business development and talent visas
There are two categories of visas that stand out in the new migration system. With the new arrangements made within the UK visa system, which is generally categorised as Stage 1 and Stage 2; The “Extraordinary Ability” visa within the scope of Phase 1 has been updated and became a “Global Ability” visa as of February 20, 2020. A Qualified Employee visa, which is a general visa under Stage 2, requires ‘sponsorship’ namely a job offer about his talent from a licensed employer in the UK.
In the updated new migration system, investor, business development and talent visas come to the fore. In this context, there are Stage 1 Investor and Entrepreneur visa and Extraordinary Talent visa, which is now called as Global Talent, as well as Start-up visa and Innovative visa categories. Within the scope of Stage 2, Qualified Employee and Internal Transfer categories are included.
With these categories, it is aimed to attract and bring the labor force trained in science and technology to the UK.
Global Talent Visa
The global talent program will open to EU, EEA and Swiss citizens. It will allow highly skilled scientists and researchers to come to UK without a job offer.
The Global Talent visa covers talented and promising people in the fields of science, engineering, medicine, humanities, digital technology, art and culture who want to work in the UK. The Global Talent visa category has replaced the former Phase 1 (Extraordinary Ability) category from February 20, 2020.
The Global Talent immigration category is open to talented and promising candidates in science, engineering, medicine, humanities, digital technology, art and culture (including film and television, fashion design and architecture). ‘Talent’ applicants are required to demonstrate extraordinary talent as a recognized leader in their field or ‘promise’ to be a rising talent. Besides, being accepted to a fund supported in the field of Research and Innovation in the UK is one of the alternatives under this visa. However, applications must be approved by an organization related to the field of qualifications called the ‘approval institution’. These organizations according to areas are listed as;
The Royal Society of Science and Medicine,
The Royal Academy of Engineering for Engineering,
The British Academy for Humanities,
Tech Nation for Digital Technology,
Arts Council England for art and culture,
UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) for research applicants.
If the field of art and culture is in the field of fashion, architecture or film and television, Arts Council of England is about to examine applications according to their areas of expertise; British Fashion Council for fashion transmits to Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) for architecture and Producers Alliance for Cinema and Television (PACT) for film and television.
The annual number of applications limitation in the extraordinary talent category has been removed in the Global Talent category. At the end of these visas, they have the right to apply for settlement in the UK in 5 years.
The points-based system will include a route for skilled workers who receive job offers from an approved employer sponsor. From January 2021, the required skill level of the job offered will have to be equivalent to level A. The applicants will be allowed to come to the country, who have achieved sufficient scores, taking into account factors such as English level, profession and educational background. As qualified employees, applicants will be required to receive job offers and the company or institution making the offer will have to pay a minimum of £ 25,500 per year. For those who will earn less than this (less than £ 20,480), they will be asked to get a job offer in a rare occupation or seek a doctorate about work.
The Brief History of Immigration to the Island of Hope Britain
The UK has recently announced the new immigration system. Demographic changes that led the country to the edge of cataclysmic Brexit, has also prepared foreground conditions of the new immigration system. Modern immigration movements reflect the structural changes on the population throughout the 21st Century.
The change of the structural pattern of the population of 2000s demonstrates some clear differences from the history of immigration in the UK after 1948. By the increase of the proportion of immigrants in the UK substantially differentiated the profile of immigration over the whole, especially in the last 20 years of the 70 years period of time, 1948 onward, the year British Citizenship Act came into effect. The same wind of change that also prepared the foreground of Brexit and now ultimately brought the new immigration system in which exclusive preference is made to accept to the UK the brightest possible immigrants in the field of science and technology.
Immigration in Modern History to the UK
It is commonly accepted that embarking of the “Windrush Empire” ship with her 492 passengers to the UK on 22nd June 1948, as a symbolic date of beginning of the modern immigration to the country (Chris Mohen: 2.12.2019, Perspektif). These new comers on the board have been called popularly as the Windrush Generation and they were colonial subjects and were granted by fully extensive residence and right to work in the UK. Citizenship Act, 1948 was also guaranteeing formally the rights of residency of all Commonwealth Citizens, who were one third of the world population then, in the next 15 years.
Although at the initial stage immigration was slow, but by 1961, thanks to the right of free movement, Commonwealth immigration reached at 135,000. To give a brake this trend, UK legislated a new Immigration Bill the same year in 1962 by depending Commonwealth citizens on obtaining the work permits and due course, these permits became essential for the entrance to the country and right of residence.
The Distribution of The Immigrant Population
The census of 1971 recorded 3 million inhabitants, who were not British born. By then, this figure was below 6 percent of the total population. Irish born were 693,000, India 313,000, Pakistan 137,000 (then Eastern Pakistan, now Bangladesh) and Americans 110,000. Census numbered European born people less than 810,000, Caraibbeans 237,000, African borns 210,000 and other Commonwealth immigrant from Canada, Australia and New Zealand were 136,000.
As of 1981, non-UK born population reached at 3,4 million. Only the number of Irish born immigrants had fallen and that was an exception compared to immigration from all other countries were on rise. The same pattern of demographoc distribution was largely preserved by the turn of the 21st Century.
Factors of Structural Change
Current immigration presents a different landscape in the sense that 14 % (9,3 Million) people were born in other than the UK and 6 percent (6,1 million) are non-British people. By the end of 2018, a lion share of non-British citizens constituted Poland, Romania, India, Ireland and Italy. One of the most significant data is diversification of the countries.
There are three turning points that can be seen in the structural change of the demography in the 2000s. The landscape was still pretty much similar to the 30 years ago. The slowing down the pace of Irish born immigration has continued steadily from 1981 onwards and first time ever, became second following the Indian immigrants. Another fast moving current was experienced in 2007-2008 by the Polish born immigrants as they comfortably took over Bangladesh, Germany, Pakistan in such a brief period of time like three years. 2014-2015 became another landmark for Polish immigrants and their numbers well exceeded Indian immigrants and rose to the first at rank.
The motor power in the acceleration of the EU immigration to the UK was the expansion of the EU to the East and following the debt crisis of the EU, which has also boosted continental circulation of European people. Central and Eastern European countries became full members of the EU in 2004 and have had full access to the EU labour and market. The most recently, Romania, Bulgaria became the latest participants to the UK without any restriction on labour in 2014. In a rough comparison, the number of non-European people in the UK are still considerably higher. Since 2012-2013, the story of immigration in the UK has turned to a chaotic phase; chaos of the last 1000 years. And, these figures signal a seismic change is very likely to be so much near.